Space explorarion

  • Proposed Beagle-2 Landing site (An enhanced image)

Crime Investigation

  • Case study from USA

  • Conviction Through Enhanced Fingerprint Identification

  • FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Dec 1992.

Crime Investigation

  • March 1990, an unknown assailant sexually molested and fatally stabbed a young woman.

  • Only evidence was a pillowcase, that had several bloodstains.

  • One stain showed some faint fingerprint ridge detail, barely visible even to the trained eye.

Preliminary Investigation

  • Fingerprint presented enough ridge detail to conduct a more extensive investigation.

  • Fingerprint treated with DFO, (a fluorescent chemical). It provided an improved ridge detail photo.

Preliminary Investigation

  • Ridge detail still remained blurred, poor general continuity and visible fabric weave in the background.

  • All traditional photographic techniques failed to erase the distortion.

Image Enhancement

  • Analysts subsequently concluded that the latent was unidentifiable.

  • Demonstration of fingerprint image enhancement at a forensic conference.

  • Best DFO photograph was handed over for image enhancement.

Image Enhancement

  • Throughout the enhancement process,the accuracy of the print was documented through photographic records of each stage.

  • Within 4 hours, the enhancement yielded an identifiable print.

  • Software used was Morhitz Digital Imaging (“Morhitz”)

Image Enhancement

  • After weeks of evaluation, comparison, and verification, the examiners achieved a positive identification comparison of the bloody pillow print with the left thumb of the suspect.

Court Proceedings

  • Defense attorneys launched an attack on most vulnerable piece of evidence

  • Scientific acceptance of fingerprint image processing.

Court Proceedings

  • To counter, an analyst took the court step by step through the entire procedure using a full complement of image enhancement equipment.

  • An expert in the field of image processing then offered supporting testimony to the court.

Court Proceedings

  • Ultimately, the court ruled the enhanced print admissible, stating that the process did not alter the actual pattern of the print; it only made it more visible. The evidence passed the test, resulting in the first documented case where image enhancement technology withstood the challenges of court hearing.

Court Proceedings

  • In 1991, the court sentenced the accused to four life sentences for murder and related offenses.

Image Enhancement solved a crime case

  • Earlier, a suspect committing these types of crimes would most likely go free, due to a lack of substantial forensic evidence. However, through persistence and by applying such modern technologies as finger-print image enhancement, today’s police investigators can use evidence invisible to their predecessors.

Wine-shope Robbery

  • An wine-shop robbery happened.

  • was captured on CCTV

  • defendant was identified from the CCTV recording by a Police.

Wine-shope Robbery

  • Defendant strongly denied being the Offender.

  • An agency (RJB Forensics Ltd, UK) was engaged to attempt image enhancement and facial comparison

  • Agency produced still prints of the Offender from the CCTV footage.

Wine-shope Robbery

  • Defendant from similar camera positions (elevation, rotation and camera-to-subject distance) to use for direct comparison with the images of the Offender.

  • Challenge: Image quality, masking of the facial features of the Offender by headwear.

Wine-shope Robbery

  • Findings: Despite the limited image quality, a number of significant differences were found between the facial features of the Defendant and those of the Offender

  • The vertical facial feature proportions were different

Wine-shope Robbery

  • The shape of the Offender’s nose was different to that of the Defendant, having a different shaped dorsal ridge and a different width and shaped tip

Wine-shope Robbery

  • Significant differences were found between the facial features of the Defendant and those of the Offender.

  • Expert evidence was given orally at Court.

  • The Defendant was found Not Guilty.

Pavement Inspection System

  • Problem solved:

  • High Cost

  • Traffic control / disruption during inspection.

Pavement Inspection System

  • 3D images and high-resolution color 2D images captured @ 100 km/h.

  • Cracks, ruts, and potholes could be detected

  • Cracks and detailed color images could be obtained from 2D images.

Structural Diagnostic System

  • Structural diagnostic system integrating deformation and connecting functions for images (raster), and plotting and measuring functions for CAD (vector).

Structural Diagnostic System

  • Reduces the errors and risks, and enhances greater on-site efficiency.

  • Noncontact nondestructive inspections: Only photographs are taken from a safe place in a short time. It contributes to greater on-site efficiency.

Structural Diagnostic System

  • Reduction of human error: Diagnosis results can be saved as data so that they can be reviewed any time. Aged deterioration can also be investigated through comparison with past data.

Structural Diagnostic System

  • Purpose: investigate cracks in a concrete dam.

  • Challenge: There had been no effective inspection method because the dam cannot be easily touched or approached.

Structural Diagnostic System

  • Solution: Images were taken from 70 m away from this gravity concrete dam with a height of 42 m and a bank top length of 138 m by using a telephoto lens. Based on the images, cracks of 0.2 mm or longer could be automatically detected and a damage distribution map was created.

Structural Diagnostic System

  • Cracks of 0.12 mm width or more could be detected with an accuracy of ±0.1 mm.

CSI: Crime Site Investigation

What next?

Google’s Brain

  • Possibilities are unlimited

  • Thank you!